Иностранный язык Английский для менеджеров МЭБИК  

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MAN AND THE ENVIRONMENT

l. The environment situation is known to have long been a subject of separate and joint research efforts by specialists of interrelated fields — biologists, chemists, biochemists and others who have to combine their knowledge with the information available to specialists in physics, geology, oceanography and meteorology, or to the experts in sociology, psychology, philosophy, etc. The problem of man and his interaction with the environment has now become the focal point for many sciences not because it is fashionable but because of its great significance for the whole of mankind.

2.Scientific exchanges and discussions are sure to be always useful because they contribute to general scientific advance. Many Western scientists say our world to be through a global ecological crisis which means the gradual destruction of the human race. Russian scientists are not so pessimistic but they do think that man’s intervention in nature is steadily increasing, which is a growing threat to the environment. The very term “crisis” is not quite accurate. What we see at present are signs of ecological imbalance which may cause a crisis if due measures are not taken. The air we breathe, the earth we live on and its rivers and seas are becoming polluted with ever more dangerous materials — the by-products of Man’s activities.
3.Interrelations between man and the biosphere are of a very complex nature. Man, like every other living organism, depends for his life on what the biosphere provides: water, oxygen, food, etc. On the other hand, the biosphere is reported to be strongly affected by all sorts of human activities. The conflicts that arise in this man-and-the environment interaction are different. For example, man creates new compounds, new substances, pure chemical elements which are unknown to the biosphere. They do not belong to the natural cycle of matter, therefore they weaken the capacity of natural complexes for self-regulation. Thus, though not changing biologically, we change the medium we live in.
4. Forests are disappearing. Deserts are advancing at the same speed and, if there are qualitative changes in the biosphere, it is supposed not any longer to
correspond to the biological requirements of man, whose ability to adapt is very limited.
5. The great scientist Vladimir Vernadsky was the first to realize the necessity for quite a new approach to the biosphere as early as the mid-forties. It is Vernadsky’s concept of the biosphere that we accept today.
6. That we must act now is clear. If your house is in order, you’re all right. Примечания к тексту:
1. buttheydothink но они все же считают
2. evermoredangerous как никогда опасные
3. ontheotherhand с другой стороны,
4. it is Vernadsky’s concept that именно концепция Вернадского

II. EXERCISES.

1. Найдите в тексте антонимы к следующим словам:
optimistic, decrease, relative, past, balance, simple, joint, death, compromise, same, artificial, because, strengthen.
2. Найдите русские эквиваленты в колонке В к английским словам из колонки А.
A B
because через
becauseof потому что
through сам; как таковой
very должный
quite как и
due таким образом
like поэтому
therefore хотя
thus из-за
though совсем
3. Переведите следующие словосочетания из текста, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые слова. Постарайтесь подобрать самый подходящий вариант их перевода.
informationavailabletospecialists forthewholemankind generalscientific advance man’sintervention in nature thevery term “crisis” signsof ecological imbalance maycause a crisis theby-productsof Man’s activities like other living organisms to realize the necessity
4. Переведите письменно следующие сложные предложения из текста,
обращая внимание на тип придаточного. Помните, что в некоторых случаях
союз, вводящий придаточные предложения, опускается.
1. What we see at present are signs of ecological imbalance.
2. The airwe breathe, the earth we live on are becoming polluted.
3. Man depends for his life on what the biosphere provides.
4. We change the medium we live in.
5. That we must act now is clear.
7. Придумайте и запишите два вопроса, ответом на которые может служить абзац 2.

III. VOCABULARY.

Environment окружающая среда
subject предмет, тема
joint совместный
effort усилие
interrelate взаимосвязывать(ся)
available имеющийся в наличии, доступный
interaction взаимодействие
fashionable модный
significance значимость
contribute способствовать, делать вклад
gradual постепенный
steadily постоянно
threat угроза
cause вызывать, быть причиной
measure мера
breathe дышать
pollute загрязнять
dangerous опасный
by-product побочный продукт
nature природа, характер
provide обеспечивать, предоставлять
depend зависеть
affect воздействовать, влиять
arise (arose, arisen) возникать
create создавать
compound соединение
matter материя, вещество
weaken ослаблять
medium среда
suppose предполагать
correspond соответствовать, отвечать (требованиям и т.д.)
realize осознать, понять
accept принимать, соглашаться

 

 

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